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Darlene E. Kelley
donkeyskid@webtv.net                              
May 15, 1999
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Historical Collections of Ohio
The Kelley Family Book compiled by Hermon Alfred Kelley   1897   
And Then They Went West
by Darlene E. Kelley    1998   
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    The first man to open a quarry on the island, then called
Cunningham's Island was John A.Clemons.  This was before the purchase of
the island by the Kelley Brothers.  This quarry was located close to the
north shore of the island.  At the place selected, the rocky ledge rises
abruptly about twenty-five feet, forming a miniature cliff.  The water
comes to the foot of a cliff and deepens rapidly so that it was not
necessary to build a long dock to get to the depth of water sufficient
for the small boats of that time.  The dock must have been substantially
built, for it endured for many years, notwithstanding the fact that it
was not within a shelter of the bay, but was some distance to the west
of it exposed to the fury of tremendous northerly storms that roll up
seas almost equal to those of the ocean.  From this dock, the first
shipments of stone and cedar are said to have been made in 1833 and 1834
by Datus and Irad Kelley.  Just how long it was after the purchase of
the island that stone was taken out of this quarry, it is now impossible
to ascertain; but not for long.  The quarry was practically abandoned
after 1835 until 1872, when the company was sold to Calkins & Company.
In the meantime. other quarries were opened near the south and west
shores of the island.  A quarry was opened near the shore of the West
Bay by John Titus who purchased eighty acres along the west shore in
1842.  Mr. Titus also built a small dock from which he could ship the
stone.  Owing to the fact that that the south shore of the island is
nearer to the mainlad and affords a better shelter for boats, it was the
first and most obvious place to be selected by first comers for
settlement.  The north shore was not settled until many years later and
remained a wilderness, inhabited only by the many birds and animals of
the island.  The north qarry consequently was not worked, after it was
found that equally good stone could be obtained by opening quarries
close to the south shore.  Small quarries were opened by George Kelley
at several places.  One on Division Street, which had to be abandoned,
because it filled with water and now a pond and has been the famous play
spot for the children for many years.  William S. Webb opened a quarry
which he sold to George Kelley in 1854.  In 1855, Mr. Kelley employed
Mr.Andrew Cameron to enlarge the quarry which was called the Upper
Quarry.  A dock was built and a road laid out from it to the quarry.
Kilns were also constructed and lime was burned and shipped.  The dock
is now called the upper Dock or Coal Dock.  Mr. George Huntington also
opened a quarry on his property nearby and commenced a dock in 1854.
The little ravine which was on his property was utilized for a passage
way.  It afforded an easy grade and Mr. Huntington laid a railway
through it from the quarry to his dock.  The track ran out to the end of
the dock.  The loaded cars ran by gravity and the empty cars were hauled
back by horses.  This was the first railway constructed on the island.
There is no record to be found of the date it was constructed but it was
before 1860.  Mr. Huntington's office was located on the bank
overlooking the dock.  It was a well made little buiding and was
afterward moved to another location and was used by Norman Kelley and
the Kelley Island Lime and Transport Company for many years.  In 1856,
Mr. W. S. Webb purcased 32 acres of adjoining land to Mr. George
Kelley's quarry and soon opened another quarry, where he also built a
dock about one hundred and fifty rods east of Geo. Kelley's dock.
Charles Carpenter also opened a quarry about 1860 from which he shipped
stone to Cleveland.  He was fortunate enough to receive some large
contracts for stone for the U.S. Government piers there and elsewhere.
An interesting account of his Scow Elmina was found in the " Islander, "
Vol. 7, No. 6, written by George Bristol, under the date of January
17,1867. He said: " A few years ago the scrow Elmina, owned by Mr.
Carpenter, started for Cleveland  loaded with a cargo of stone.  The
weather became foggy for two days ad nights and she sailed and drifted
until it cleared. When the Captain found himself in Maumee Bay about
nine miles from Toledo."  Mr. Carpenter discontinued the stone business
in 1863.  Mr. George W. Kelley's stone business, including quarry and
dock, was purchased in 1857 by his brothers, Franklin and Norman Kelley.
In 1865, they acquired the quarry opened by Mr. Webb and also his dock.
They also purcased Mr. Huntington's quarry anddock and thus became
owners of all the commercial quarries and all the docks on the south
shore, except Mr. Carpenter's.  Franklin Kelley, having previosly
acquired the steamboat dock at the foot of Division street, sold a half
interest in it to his brother and partner, Norman Kelley.  In 1869,
Franklin Kelley's interest became sole owner of all the above mentioned
properties, although his cousin, Alfred S. Kelley, who had been
associated with Mr. Webb in the latter's quarry, retained an interest.
Thereafter the business was conducted as N.Kelley & Company.  The dock
formally owned by Mr. Webb was enlarged from time to time, as the
business required.  At first, the stone was sold for building purposes.
During the time that navigation was closed, the building stone was
hauled to the dock and piled in orderly manner close to the waters edge.
The schooners and scows engaged in the business in the early days rarely
were over three hundred tons in burthen.  They carried 50 to 60 " cords
" of stone.  Stone was sold then by the cord, which weighed 5 1/2 tons.
The deck of the largest boat then going to island for stone was about on
a level with the top of the dock to a man stationed by a hatchway who
tossed it into the hold.  But soon after Norman Kelley took charge of
the business, he made a contract with the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company
to supply it with flux stone to be used in the pig iron furnaces.
Larger boats were employed and more rapid methods of loading became a
necessity,  This lead to the 

most important 
development of iron sheathed  "shoots" for loading and to building an
upper deck to the dock from which the stone could be "shot" from wagons
directly into the ship's hold.  We quote from an article in the
"Islander" of January 1874 the following: "This branch of stone trae (
flux stone for blast furnaces) has been rapidly increasing for several
years and is now perhaps as important a feature of stone business as the
lime or building stone.  It is but a few years since our stone has been
intoduced to any extent for fluxing purposes.  The demand for surface
stone having been confined almost entirely to filling government piers
and breakwaters at different harbors on the Lakes.  The demand for stone
for the manufacture of lime is most uniform and is steadily increasing
year after year.  The Island limestone having the reputation of being
superior to any in the market is sought for and is shipped to almost all
points on the lakes, from Dunkirk, N.Y. to Duluth, Minn., and Chicago,
Ill.  Many interior towns in New York, Pennsyvania, Ohio, and. Michigan
are using our limestone.  The building stone trade is not as uniform as
is that of either the flux or limestone.  For several years past,
increasing each season, a great want has been felt for better facilities
for handling stone and loading the larger class of vessels running in
the trade.  This want has been at length in part supplied by an
elevation erected on the 'middle dock' ( so called ) formally owned by
Mr. W.S.Webb.  The structure was suggested and planned by Mr. N. Kelley
under whose general superintendence it was built during the months of
last July, August, and Sept.  The principal feature of this structure
where it varies from other docks erected for loadng vessels, is the
application of movable platforms, so that carts can be backed over the
vessel's deck before the load is dumped into shoots or sprouts."  The
excellant quality of limestone found on Kelley's Island attracted the
attention of G.W. Calkins & Company who purchased some land in 1866 at
West Bay.  Calkins & Company owned lime kilns in Cleveland where the
stone was shipped and burned.  In 1872 Messrs. Calkins & Company
purchased of W.D.Kelley 1171/4 acres of land on the North Bay. Mr.
Calkin's partner Mr. J.T. Clark then sold his interest to a new firm
composed of G.W. Calkins, M.C.Younglove and Charles Hickox .  This firm
acquired other holdngs about North Bay and old lot no.13 which includes
all of Long Point.  In the very early days, James Watkins had lived on
the Point and had burned lime there in a small way.  The ruins of his
small kiln is still there over grown by vines and bushes. It is near the
west shore, about 2000 feet frm the north end of the Point.  The firm of
Calkins, Younglove and Hickox, still called G.W. Calkins & Company, made
many improvements on the north side in 1872.  They built a new dock in
the bay, erected lime kilns and a cooper shop where barrels were made in
which to ship the lime.  Tenements and a boarding house for empoyees
were built besides many other improvements.  They also had a steam barge
built at the shipyards at Black River( now Lorain, Ohio).  This was
christened " Charles Hickox" and was employed in carrying lime and stone
from the island. In 1874 Hughes Bros. and Bangs took some ston for the
Soo Canal from N. Kelley & Company quarries.  In 1876 ( centennial year)
the contractors Baker, Van Bleck & Company were engaged in building the
first large American Lock at Saulte Ste Marie ( The Soo).  They
contracted with Calkins & Company for block stone to be used in building
the lock.  They took charge of the work of getting out the blocks and
employed a force of about one hundred and fifty men for about a year. In
1891 The Kelley Island Lime and Transport acquired the properties of
E.R. and E.T. Collins  and N. Kelley & Company and other properties have
since been purchased , which have put the Company in possession of
practically all the good stone land on the island.  They increased the
lime production at the North Bay and it became a beehive of industry.
The business of the Company grew rapidly and it made rapid developments
in many directions.  The Marblehead quarries eventually were acquired
and kilns were constructed at Duluth Minn.  Thus how ever, resulted in
closing the island kilns in 1909 and in the reduction of the force
employed there.  It is not my plan to write a history of the Kelley
Island Lme and Transport Company except that as it effects the history
of the Island.  It took its name and its beginnings from the island ,
but its interests in other parts of the contry are so much greater than
its island holdings, that the island is now a comparatively small item
in its scheme of things.  In 1912 there were 546,922 tons of stone
shipped from the island in 459 Boat loads .  In 1924, all the quarries
except the Norh side quarry are merged into one immense opening
extending from the west bay to the east for fully a mile.  All the
shipping is now done by the stone company from the west bay dock which
has been so enlarged and improved by pockets and conveying belts and
etc., that the cost and time of loading ships has been reduced to the
mnimum.  A seven  thousand ton ship can now be loaded  in less time than
it took to load a 300 ton ship in the seventies. A great net work  of
moveable railroad track covers the floor of that great quarry and long
trains of dump cars drawn by steam engines instead of horses take the
stone  to the dock or the crusher. In the eary days, the stone was
blasted out with black powder and long fuses put into holes drilled by
men with sledges and hand drills.  Today, the holes are drilled by
machines driven by compressed air and the " shots " of dynamite are set
off by electricity.  Then, the large pieces of rock were broken by
sledges in the hands of the workman and loaded by hand in the wagons.
Today the rock after blasting is loaded onto cars by a steam digger and
crushed by machinery.

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